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2089 results Most recent
  • Safety issues governing cargo pumping systems on-board chemical tankers

    Authors

    Henrik Weiss

    Date published

    2002

    Abstract

    The safety issues that govern cargo pumping systems onboard chemical tankers are considered. The aim is to provide an understanding of the risks associated with managing technological advances in electric cargo pump designs for liquid cargoes. This topic is becoming more and more relevant to ship owners managers and other parties that try to keep up with technologies advances in electric pump designs. Here the IEC standards for hazardous area definitions are considered and how they correspond to the given provisions in IMO's IGC and IBC codes chapter 10 for electrical installations. On chemical tankers IMO still does not yet permit the submerged electrical driven cargo pumps whereas on gas tankers it is allowed for electricity in the tank. Therefore today the electrical frequency converter driven deepwell cargo pump system is designed with the motor on the deck and the pump in the tank. Technology has revolutionised the deepwell cargo pump systems for the last 3-5 years and the electrical alternative has enjoyed much support from the industry players concerned about high noise hydraulic power generation risk of hydraulic oil pollution vast maintenance and service as well as high power consumption. These benefits are documented in the associated Delta Marin study on comparison between hydraulic and electrical driven frequency converter deepwell cargo pumping systems.

    Authors

    Henrik Weiss

    Date published

    2002

  • Some Thames and Medway drydocks

    Authors

    Ian Buxton

    Date published

    2004

    Abstract

    The River Thames was one of the first regions in Britain to have permanent drydocks for merchant ships. Graving docks can be defined as excavated docks which can be closed with gates and emptied whereas the more general term 'drydock' also includes floating docks. For many small wooden sailing vessels much of the work was within the scope of the vessel's own crew. Most ships were small enough to be bodily hauled out of the water or beached at low tide or placed on a gridiron (a strengthened portion of a wet berth that dried out at low tide). The bottom could then be cleaned scraped caulked and painted. For larger vessels careening was possible (heeling a vessel over to expose more of the underwater hull on one side). It was not until well into the 19th century that a significant number of drydocks for merchant ships were built and a major industry of repairing ships grew up. The advent of steam propulsion and iron hulls required well-equipped facilities for repair and dry docking. Iron hulls needed frequent cleaning and re-coating with anti-fouling paint (introduced in the 1860s) while machinery overhauls and repairs required drydocks for maintaining propellers and shafting and cranes to lift heavy items such as replacement boilers. Naval dockyards and their drydocks are much better documented than commercial repair yards. The focus here is on the latter and their drydocks; also excluding slipways and gridirons. 18th and 19th century drydocks were used both for repair and new building of wooden sailing ships. The first large drydock on the Thames for steamships wX19625 Some Thoughts About Marine Auxiliaries in Relation to Maintenance Reliability and Cost

    Authors

    Ian Buxton

    Date published

    2004

  • VIVACE (vortex-induced vibration aquatic clean energy): a new concept in generation of clean and renewable energy from fluid flow

    Authors

    Michael M Bernitsas ; Raghavan Kamaldev ; E M H Garcia et al.

    Date published

    2005

    Abstract

    Any device that aims to harness the abundant clean and renewable energy from ocean and other water resources in the USA must have high energy density be unobtrusive have low maintenance be robust meet lifecycle cost targets and have a 10-20 year life. The VIVACE (vortex-induced vibration aquatic clean energy) Converter satisfies those criteria. It converts ocean or river current kinetic energy to electricity using VIV successfully and efficiently for the first time. VIVACE is based on the simple idea of maximizing rather than spoiling vortex shedding and exploiting rather than suppressing VIV. It introduces optimal damping for energy conversion while maintaining VIV over a broad range of vortex shedding synchronisation. VIV occurs over very broad ranges of Re (Reynolds) number. Only two transition regions suppress VIV. Thus even from currents as slow as 0.25m per second VIVACE can extract energy with high efficiency making ocean or river current energy a more accessible and economically viable resource. The underlying concepts of the VIVACE Converter are discussed.

    Authors

    Michael M Bernitsas ; Raghavan Kamaldev ; E M H Garcia et al.

    Date published

    2005

  • A new approach to outsourcing small ship fleet management Armidale class patrol boat and other support system designs

    Authors

    Jon C Clemesha

    Date published

    2003

    Abstract

    DMS (Defence Maritime Services) was incorporated in 1997 and began by supporting the RAN Port Services and Support Craft operating and maintaining a fleet of small and large vessels. In December 2003 DMS in alliance with Austal Ships was contracted as prime to provide the design construction delivery and through-life support of the new Armidale class patrol boats for RAN (the Royal Australian Navy). DMS began the Customs vessels maintenance contract in early 1995. The approach taken by DMS to develop ship and support system designs is described. It provides an overview of DMS and service company led project management. Both the Navy's Port Services and Support Craft and Armidale Class patrol boats have forged new frontiers in the working relationships between the department of defence and contractors as it is the first time that a specialist support company has been tasked with all aspects of design construction delivery and through-life support on an outcomes basis. The focus here is on the design and integration of the commercial approach to integrated logistic support systems within complex client organisations using the DMS experience with the patrol boats and port services examples.

    Authors

    Jon C Clemesha

    Date published

    2003

  • Advanced applied research unravelling the fundamentals of 2-stroke engine cylinder lubrication - an innovative on-line measurement method based on the use of radioactive tracers

    Authors

    V Doyen ; R K Drijfholt ; T Delvigne

    Date published

    2007

    Abstract

    Drain oils in 2-stoke marine engines are receiving a lot of attention as they are some of the most valuable tools for optimising cylinder unit operation and for defining predictive maintenance. Adapting lubricant feed rate burning bunker fuels of different sulphur content and of different quality or even adapting the lubricant to the fuel used are risky operations best associated with a control of wear and BN reserve by monitoring the drain oil for each cylinder. As the number of analysis results increase questions arise as to how representative such analysis is for the engine condition and also for the individual cylinders. Delta Services Industriels (DSi Belgium) and TOTAL France recently developed an innovative method for monitoring the flow of cylinder lubricant in a two-stroke marine engine. A key to this development is the use of new radiotracers compounds which are representative of the distillation interval of the base oil. The very high sensitivity of the new method allows the smallest remains of lubricant to be detected. These radioactive tracers are added to TOTAL Talusia LS40 cylinder lubricant and injected into a running full-size Sulzer RT-flex58T two-stroke test engine. The tracer was monitored using detectors to determine how long the cylinder lubricant remained on the liner wall and the flow of the cylinder lubricant through the engine.

    Authors

    V Doyen ; R K Drijfholt ; T Delvigne

    Date published

    2007

  • Contract designs for ballast water treatment systems on containership 'R.J. Pfeiffer' and tanker 'Polar Endeavor'

    Authors

    William L Hurley Jr ; Spencer S Schilling Jr ; Thomas P Mackey

    Date published

    2006

    Abstract

    The introduction of non-indigenous species to new environments is one of the greatest threats to the world's coastal waters. Ballast water is a major contributor to the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens. Potential economic impacts and impacts on human health and the ecology are very significant. Therefore effective ballast water treatment methods must be developed and their efficacy established. The Great Lakes Ballast Technology Demonstration Project recently funded three 6-month full-scale design studies of promising ballast water treatment systems. The aim of each study is to fully develop for a specified 'target' vessel the contract design and life-cycle cost of a reliable optimised flow-through onboard treatment system that effectively removes living organisms from the ship's ballast water before it is discharged into an ecosystem other than its original source. Two of these three studies are addressed selecting two different kinds of target vessels. These ships represent classes of vessels typically involved in ballast water discharge in the ports and waterways of the US West Coast Hawaii and Alaska. This is one of the first efforts devoted to developing contract design level technical solutions quantifying life-cycle costs and assessing actual vessel operational impacts on effective ecosystem maintenance.

    Authors

    William L Hurley Jr ; Spencer S Schilling Jr ; Thomas P Mackey

    Date published

    2006

  • Fluid machinery for the oil petrochemical and related industries

    Authors

    IMechE

    Publisher

    MEP

    Abstract

    4th European Congress held 21-23 May 1990 at The Hague Papers are Optimization selection testing and simulation of offshore gas compressors for multifield feed systems Process compressor selection considerations in the air separation industry Packaged process compressors - design and advantages Test of equipment for Woodside LNG project Experience with fluid machinery for a gas-to-gasoline plant Thermo-mechanical design of the Dresser-Rand EA-418 low pressure CAES expander secondary flow system Pump vibrations excited by cavitation A vertical heavy-duty pump concept opens up new platform dimensions in offshore technology - topside cost savings The development of a wet compressor Refinery standard for centrifugal pumps Improved safety and reliability in fluid machinery through cooperative development A new approach to reducing the operation and maintenance costs of centrifugal pumps - innovation to achieve the complete pump function Development of an oil-injected screw compressor for arduous gas duty Radial compressor stages for low flow coefficients Predicting centrifugal compressor performance from impeller dimensional data Industrial commissioning of an oil-free centrifugal compressor - an experience rich in lessons Turbomachinery vibration case histories - design problems of rotating machinery in operation A practical approach to machine condition monitoring techniques The application of cylinder process analysis as a diagnostic tool for reciprocating compressors The behaviour of dynamically loaded bearings under variable operating conditions in reciprocating compressors Developments in piston and rod sealing materials for oX37664 Fluid Mechanics 2nd Edition J F Douglas ; J M Gasiorek ; J A Swaffield

    Authors

    IMechE

    Date published

    1990

    Publisher

    MEP

  • Implications of OPA 90 in general and its effect on the T-AO 187 class oilers in particular

    Authors

    Hans Hofman ; George Kapsilis ; Eric Smith et al.

    Date published

    2006

    Abstract

    Oil spills from tank vessel accidents have caused increasing environmental concern. While the US-promoted double-hull regulations in conjunction with MARPOL Regulation 13F provide a large step in the right direction to avoid environmental disasters these regulations in themselves are not of course a perfect solution. The majority of tanker accidents that have occurred in the past can be allocated to human error rather than to mechanical failure. Only a comprehensive approach can result in a substantially improved condition. An approach which tightens regulatory and inspection or maintenance procedures while at the same time increasing officer and crew training and licensing requirements together with the design requirements. OPA 90 (the Oil Pollution Act of 1990) has ordered that by the year 2015 all oil tankers operating in waters subject to US jurisdiction must have double hulls. The Act and the status of regulatory initiatives it has generated are examined. Guidance for new hull construction and retrofit of existing vessels is outlined and both IMO and USCG requirements are discussed. Finally the structural changes necessary to convert the US Navy's T-AO Class oil tankers to meet the requirements of the Act are specified and illustrated.

    Authors

    Hans Hofman ; George Kapsilis ; Eric Smith et al.

    Date published

    2006

  • Naval Platform Technology Seminar 2005 (10th) - 'Transformational Technologies for the Future Navy' - 17-18 May 2005

    Authors

    Republic of Singapore Navy

    Shelf Location

    213b

    Abstract

    Naval Platform Technology Seminar 2005 - 'Transformational Technologies for the Future Navy' - 17-18 May 2005 Two-day seminar. Papers from day one as follows: Sea Fighter - A revolutionary new platform for the US Navy. This paper describes the design and development of the X-Craft hull form and discusses the innovative technologies used on board it. Also, Optimised manning technologies for naval surface ships, Network centric training technology, new approach in mine warfare and Fully non-linear wave simulator. Day two comprises papers under heading 'Future platforms and optimisation technology': the Gowind corvettes, submarine platform, all electric ship: economics versus technology, simulation technologies for semi and fully automated forces, Submarines in the new world order and Antiterrorist MCM. Also, under heading ; 'Advanced propulsion and computational technology', papers: R & D of a resonating silencer for generator exhausts, Development of simulation and reliability database for marine hazard, risk and maintenance management, The benefits of coating propellers, Comparison of CFD simulation of exhaust smoke-superstructure interaction on a ship, Application for improved research technology and techniques and Stealth and signature management in submarine projects.

    Authors

    Republic of Singapore Navy

    Publisher

    Naval Logistics Department Republic of Singapore Navy

    Shelf Location

    213b

    Date published

    2005

  • Proceedings of the 13th Ship Technology And Research (STAR) Symposium 8-10 June 1988

    Authors

    Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME)

    Shelf Location

    214e

    Abstract

    3rd International Marine Systems Design Conf held Pittsburgh 8-10 June 1988 Papers are The subcavitating/supercavitating hybrid propeller An advanced method for design of optimal ducted propellers behind bodies of revolution Optimal hull forms for fishing vessels A knowledge-based system architecture for control of underwater vehicles Roll reduction by rudder control An integrated rig management system for a semisubmersible floating production vessel Computer aided navigation system (CANSY-II) Evaluation of impact loads associated with flare slamming Surface effect ship loads; lessons learnt and their implications for other advanced marine vehicles Advanced ship structural design and maintenance Methods of incorporating design for production considerations into concept design investigations Achieving customer and marketing orientation in marine transport system design Incorporating a seakeeping capability in a computer aided preliminary design system Hull form design - only a matter of the computer ? The components of the propulsive efficiency of ships in relation to the design procedure Design conception and CAE/CAD of hull form Direct curve and surface manipulation for hull form design Intelligent computer aid in marine design and ocean engineering Ship synthesis model morphology Teaching design for students of marine technology Operational aspects in ship design; the case of the roll on/roll off vessel The productive experience of 3D CAD/CAM techniques applied to ship design and construction A new concept for neat fit ship propulsion

    Authors

    Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME)

    Publisher

    Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME)

    Shelf Location

    214e

    Date published

    1988

  • Project 500 - when Cubism met Hydrography

    Authors

    Paul Scibilia ; Cliff Whatrup

    Shelf Location

    214c

    Abstract

    The CHP (Civil Hydrographic Programme) is one part of the UK strategy for delivering valid source data for the maintenance of British Admiralty charts and associated publications. Under the CHP commercial survey companies such as Gardline compete for surveys of pre-defined areas on the UK continental shelf of typically 450 nm2 area. The CHP surveys are carried out and supervised according to Royal Navy standards based upon IHO S-44 using single-beam echo sounder side scan sonar and magnetometer as primary survey sensors. In August 2002 the MCA commissioned a review called 'Project 500' to investigate whether introduction of multi-beam echosounder technology and next generation side scan sonar systems could challenge traditional survey techniques and instrumentation to better deliver data that is fit for the purpose. Gardline Surveys were contracted to carry out a series of trials using Kongsberg Simrad EM3000 MBES (multi-beam echo sounder) and Edgetech's 100 kHz MP-X multi-purpose digital side scan sonar system. The main purpose was to objectively determine whether these new technologies had a part to play within the CHP by assessing their performance for bathymetric data acquisition and object detection in typical UK survey coastal conditions. A secondary objective was to evaluate the multi-beam system for carrying out wreck investigations as an alternative tool to the accepted methods of SBES (single-beam echo sounder) side scan sonar and mechanical wire-sweep. The survey systems were tested over a variety of seabed terrains and sea conditions including the deployment of a purpose-built 2 m steel cube deployed on the seabed andX31851 Project considerations for LNG receiving terminals with CCGT power plant

    Authors

    Paul Scibilia ; Cliff Whatrup

    Date published

    2003

    Shelf Location

    214c

  • Report of Committee III.2 - Fatigue and fracture

    Authors

    ISSC 2009

    Date published

    2009

    Abstract

    This report is an overview of recent activities within the offshore and ship industry with focus on the latest research on fatigue and fracture. The first section provides the introduction. There are different approaches and methods which can be used in fatigue life predictions. Section 2 presents an overview of these approaches and methods both from a local and global perspective covering the stress-based strain-based and fracture-mechanics based approaches. Both S-N curve with Miners damage accumulation rule or fracture mechanics based approach have been discussed in section 3 and the influence of multi-axial fatigue design procedures have been evaluated. In Section 4 some of the factors that influence the fatigue life of structures are discussed and some methods which have been developed for improving the fatigue performance are also evaluated. Section 5 focuses on new developments and applications of materials seen in the offshore and shipping industry from a fatigue point of view. In Section 6 fatigue design methods for ship and offshore structures are discussed. The understanding of fatigue is mainly based on observations from experiments or structural failure and the interpretation of these events. Section 7 reviews and discusses some significant work in this area and presents a benchmark study performed by the committee in order to validate hot-spot stresses assessed from different models. Inspection maintenance and repair strategies provide the means to ensure safe operations during the life of vessels and offshore structures; these topics are discusssed briefly in Section 8 Report of Committee IV.1 - Design principles and criteria

    Authors

    ISSC 2009

    Date published

    2009

  • Research on applicability of new materials to marine structures in tropical climates -durability assessment of new materials

    Authors

    Fuminori Tomosawa ; Shigeo Tsujikawa ; Tadashi Ono et al.

    Date published

    2005

    Abstract

    New structural members that are light and durable are anticipated to reduce the running and maintenance costs of structures exposed to harsh marine environments such as offshore oil production facilities thereby reducing their lifecycle cost. This study investigates the applicability of new materials to marine structures focusing on their durability. To this end a 5-year exposure test has been carried out (beginning in 1999) on 3 types of specimens (for corrosion observation tension testing and joint strength testing) made of 21 selected materials (6 nonferrous metals 8 steels 4 composite materials and 3 rope materials). The specimens have been exposed at 3 sites: Okinotori-shima and Miyako-jima corrosive environments with high temperature and humidity and a thermo-hygrostatic room in a laboratory. Having completed the natural exposure tests in 2004 strength tests and observation was carried out afterwards until 2005. The results of such tests and observation carried out so far are summarised and a final assessment of each material is made. Within the range of the 5-year exposure test most of the selected new materials pose no problems with regard to durability. However marine structures are more vulnerable to alternate stresses than general structural members on land because of constant waves and pulsating gales on the sea. It is intended to investigate the durability of structural members under continued or cyclic stress as a subject in the future.

    Authors

    Fuminori Tomosawa ; Shigeo Tsujikawa ; Tadashi Ono et al.

    Date published

    2005

  • Seakeeping system trades for co-ordinated air-surface-underwater operations

    Authors

    Brian S Bingham ; Eric F Prechtl ; Richard A Wilson

    Shelf Location

    214b

    Abstract

    Future autonomous marine missions will depend on the seamless co-ordination of USVs (unmanned surface vehicles) UUVs (unmanned underwater vehicles) and UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). Applications will include autonomous refuelling data transfer and period maintenance. A critical need is the capability to autonomously capture retrieve and deploy a UUV from a USV platform. To help in developing this new capability a performance specification is proposed to quantify the required compensation. The relative PVD (peak-to-peak vertical displacement) is a measure sea state-induced vessel-to-vessel motion that must be regulated. Any successful autonomous capture and retrieval system will have to address this only the vertical motion for sage and secure capture retrieval and deployment. This article presents the derivation of succinct generalised performance requirements of any autonomous USV-UUV capture system based on simple seakeeping models and standard sea-state conditions. Using Pierson-Moskowitz wave spectra and frequency-domain 3DOF (three degrees-of-freedom) vessel response characteristics the simultaneous motion of a USV and UUV in the same stochastic sea-state is predicted. These simulation results estimates of vehicle state lead directly to records of the relative motion between the two vehicles. Any capture and recovery system would have to be capable of operating in this dynamic environment and the vessel-to-vessel motion bounds the dynamic requirements of such a system. This analysis culminates with a set of system-level design requireX28619

    Authors

    Brian S Bingham ; Eric F Prechtl ; Richard A Wilson

    Date published

    2008

    Shelf Location

    214b

  • System for mapping and monitoring of technical safety - safety reviews of Statoil's installations

    Authors

    Odd Thomassen ; Morten Sorum ; Frank L Firing

    Date published

    2002

    Abstract

    In the petroleum industry there has been a high focus on the risk of major hazards. Statoil is an operator of some 20 plus offshore production platforms in the North Sea with major pipeline systems carrying gas to continental Europe and onshore facilities such as gas separation facilities and refineries. As such it is vitally important for Statoil to have a clear picture of the safety condition of its facilities. In order to ensure a high safety performance Statoil has developed a method for mapping and monitoring the technical safety level. This method is based on a set of performance standards specifying functional integrity (availability) and survivability requirements. The technical safety condition has been mapped for 21 of Statoil's offshore production installations and 9 onshore plants and receiving terminals. The conditions for each are described relative to more than 200 requirements each checked by performing 3-20 examination activities. Results are shown using grades for each performance requirement and indicators for each installation. The indicators change when gaps are closed and new reviews are performed. Another technical safety indicator reflects the performance of selected safety critical equipment-components. This allows trending and means for early intervention as well as an opportunity for optimisation maintenance and function tests (intervals). The overall impression is that most of the systems fulfil acceptable safety performance and will in general prevent or mitigate a major hazardous incident.95386 System for mono- and bistatic sonar investigation of buried objects

    Authors

    Odd Thomassen ; Morten Sorum ; Frank L Firing

    Date published

    2002

  • Tribology in big medium-speed engine

    Authors

    Paolo Tonon ; Hannu Nurmi ; Kai Juoperi

    Date published

    2004

    Abstract

    For many years the main focus for internal combustion engines has been on reducing specific fuel oil consumption. In the last 10 years the focus has also been on reducing emissions and not increasing fuel consumption or fuel costs. One way to improve mechanical efficiency is to reduce the mechanical power losses of the engine. (Most of these losses result from the friction of piston rings and liners bearings and valve train systems.) Another way to improve engine efficiency is to operate in more and more demanding conditions. The trend has shown an increase in the maximum combustion pressure of the mean effective pressure together with an increase of mean piston speed. All these aspects have a big impact on the lubricating oil performances and finally on the wear rate of the major engine components. Parallel target for engine manufacturers is to take into use new lubricating oils for marine and land base power generation that could have a direct impact on maintenance intervals increase and operational cost decrease. The Wartsila design criteria and field experience in medium-speed engines are considered. Consideration is then given to the biggest Wartsila medium-speed engine power train components development and interaction with lubricating oil development. The Wartsila 64 components experience is highlighted in relation to the ultimate technical design solutions adopted when 4-stroke engine concepts apply to 2-stroke engines power output and dimensions.

    Authors

    Paolo Tonon ; Hannu Nurmi ; Kai Juoperi

    Date published

    2004

  • Use of on-line sensor technology for oil and machinery condition monitoring - case studies on real world applications and their use to predict machinery failure and extend oil change intervals Paper no. 150

    Authors

    Iain Lamont

    Shelf Location

    224a

    Abstract

    CIMAC Congress 2007 - Vienna Ever increasing demands to cut costs and manpower means an inevitable reduction in time-consuming laboratory based oil analysis. An alternative is therefore required. A range of on-line CMS (condition monitoring sensors) have been designed tested and placed in real world situations. These sensors detect parameters such as metallic wear debris emulsified and dissolved water viscosity and oil condition. These sensors provide the possibility of real time measurement of wear metals and oil condition at an economical cost. It is shown how this can be achieved in a number of cases including real and simulated failures. On-line sensor technology is presented for use in monitoring oil and machinery condition. Oil and machinery condition data has been collected from slow- and medium- speed diesel engines industrial and wind turbine gearboxes. This shows how oil change intervals can be extended and maintenance can be scheduled in advance. It is shown how well the sensors have performed and that real time assessments of machinery condition can be made from the data. The sensor development project described has now been completed and has resulted in full commercialisation of a suite of on-line oil conditions sensors.

    Authors

    Iain Lamont

    Date published

    2007

    Shelf Location

    224a

  • Effective fleet management strategy for floating assets - an operator's perspective

    Authors

    Subir Bhattacharjee ; Douglas R Angevine ; Robert E Sandstrom

    Date published

    2009

    Abstract

    Over the last ten years the numbr of floating assets has increased significantly for most operators. Many of these are in remote areas where a thoroughly planned and executed integrity management becomes all the more critical. Several of these fields are also in harsh environments with limited weather windows for routing maintenance. Some are in deepwater and have a very complex field architecture putting a higher demand on the integrity planning. Several of the assets especially the FPSO units are converted tankers with a long cumulative service life with its associated structural integrity challenges. All of these factors call for a well-planned integrity management system to ensure asset integrity and minimise production downtime. This paper provides a broad overview of a general framework adopted by EMPC (ExxonMobil Production Company) to promote and achieve performance excellence in asset integrity management across their global network of production operations. The general scope of the integrity and reliability management framework are discussed and also the organisation and the process by which the plan is executed the primary tools used including the RBI (risk-based inspection) plan the performance indicators used to measure the effectiveness of the program and the overall assessment and feedback used for continuous improvement of the system.

    Authors

    Subir Bhattacharjee ; Douglas R Angevine ; Robert E Sandstrom

    Date published

    2009

  • Experimental investigation on dynamic response of submarine pipeline over flat beds in waves

    Authors

    Yong Sha ; Yongxue Wang ; Lee M Pearson

    Date published

    2007

    Abstract

    Submarine pipelines over seabed are subjected to wave force in coastal or offshore field which may require many supports increasing the cost of installation and maintenance. Therefore there is a need for an accurate assessment of dynamic response of submarine pipeline over seabed in waves to optimise the number of supports. Model tests have been carried out on flexible submarine pipelines over flat beds in both regular and irregular waves and the second order effect induced by waves are concerned within the certain range of Keulegan-Carpenter numbers and Reynolds numbers. The tests were carried out in the wave flume with 55m in length 4m in width and 2.5m in depth. The pipelines were made by flexible pipe with 60mm in diameter and placed at various distances from a flat bed. Gap to diameter ratio varies from 0.4 to 0.8 when the pipelines are not sagging. The wave period in the model tests is in the range from 0.8 to 2.0 and water depth is 0.4 m. The Keulegan-Carpenter numbers are less than 8.0 and the Reynolds numbers are in the sub-critical regime. Bending strain was measured by strain gauges bonded on the inner surface of the pipeline. The strain amplitudes and second order effect are analysed and discussed against various Keulegan Carpenter numbers and gaps between the pipeline and the flat bed.

    Authors

    Yong Sha ; Yongxue Wang ; Lee M Pearson

    Date published

    2007

  • Human factors engineering in the wheelhouse design of a high-speed catamaran ferry

    Authors

    Laurel Ritmiller ; Scott Davis ; Joanna Zander

    Date published

    2006

    Abstract

    Traditionally classification societies and naval architects have concerned themselves with hardware issues. However in the light of human error issues being identified as contributing factors in major disasters it is now recognised that attention must also be drawn to the wider system encompassing a range of human-related issues. Many commercial military and government organisations are requiring HFE (human factors engineering) involvement throughout the vessel design process. The integration of a HFE process in the wheelhouse design of a high-speed catamaran ferry is described. HFE specialists were integrated into the design and manufacturing teams to advise on the perspective of the human operator in the design of two 300-passenger 32-knot ferries. Human factor expertise was provided related to the concept design and production of the vessels to enhance the operational ability of the crew reduce the risk of operator error establish efficient working patterns and allow maintenance and repair tasks to be performed in a work environment conducive to health and safety. Given the high speeds single person operation and heavy traffic of San Francisco Bay emphasis was placed on visibility well designed layout of controls and displays and situation awareness of the vessel operator in order to maximise collision avoidance strategies. One-tenth and full-scale mock-ups in conjunction with task simulations involving the vessel operators

    Authors

    Laurel Ritmiller ; Scott Davis ; Joanna Zander

    Date published

    2006